Periodontitis & Gum disease

The Clinique Dentaire Hakim located in the Anjou-Mercier neighbourhood of Montreal, offers a wide range of dental services for patients of all ages.

Periodontics is the discipline in dentistry aiming to treat gum disease, including all ailments affecting the surrounding and supporting tissues of teeth such as the gums, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. Periodontitis is often responsible for bad breath. It is important to treat periodontitis since it can lead to irreversible damage such as the loss of one or more teeth and can even affect the rest of your body.

How does periodontitis develop?

Periodontitis is caused by the inflammation of the surrounding and supporting tissues of teeth. This inflammation is caused by many factors. It is important to discuss this with your dentist in order to determine the cause or causes (genetics, immunity, tobacco, lifestyle, stress, poor oral hygiene, etc.).

Gum inflammation leads to bone loss around the teeth, creating a small space between teeth and gums called periodontal pockets. Pathogenic bacteria then spread into these pockets and create further inflammation and bone loss.

As mentioned above, there are many consequences to periodontal disease, bad breath, repeated gum infections that may lead to dental abscesses, tooth mobility, even the loss of all teeth.

Should I be concerned about periodontal disease?

Risk factors include genetics, hormonal issues, environmental as well as local factors. Environmental factors mean an unhealthy lifestyle that can impair the immune system and cause the beginning of gum disease.  These include smoking, obesity and a diet low in vitamins and minerals.

People suffering from diseases affecting their immune or hormonal system, such as HIV, diabetes and cancer are more at risk for developing periodontal disease. Some medications can also cause periodontal issues if they affect your gums or have the tendency to induce dry mouth.

Local factors such as poor oral hygiene, dry mouth or poorly adapted dental restorations encourage the accumulation of plaque and tartar build-up around teeth, which in turn increases the chances for gum disease or encourages its progression.

Periodontal disease is often silent but you may notice some of the following:

  • Gums that bleed and that may or may not be painful ;
  • Sore and/or swollen gums ;
  • Receding gums causing the roots of teeth to be exposed and thus creating sensitive teeth;
  • Pain while chewing ;
  • Tooth mobility ;
  • Persistent bad breath.

Diagnostics and treatment

With a periodontal probe, an instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets, six measures are recorded per tooth to quantify bone loss. Gum conditions are also recorded such as bleeding, pus, the presence of interdental papilla, the level of bone loss between roots and tooth mobility. X-rays also help to determine whether bone loss is vertical or horizontal.

After studying your results or periodontal chart, your dentists is able to evaluate the severity of your periodontal disease and can prescribe the appropriate care and treatment for you. Periodontal treatment varies depending on how severe the disease is, though it often includes scaling to eliminate bacteria from periodontal pockets as well as root planing to eliminate tartar below the gum line. Sometimes antibiotics are prescribed as well if the disease is very aggressive.


To avoid periodontal disease or to stop it from progressing, it is essential to make healthy lifestyle choices and to visit your dentist at least twice a year for check-ups and cleanings. To avoid any further complications, book an appointment with our team at the Clinique dentaire Hakim.


Clinique dentaire Hakim: your dentist in Mercier-Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.